# Nonlinear CSTR

Dynamic optimization of chemical and biochemical processes using restricted second-order information 2001, Eva Balsa-Canto, Julio R. Banga, Antonio A. Alonso Vassilios S. Vassiliadis

Case Study III: Nonlinear CSTR

## Problem description

The problem was first introduced by Jensen (1964) and consists of determining the four optimal controls of a chemical reactor in order to obtain maximum economic benefit. The system dynamics describe four simultaneous chemical reactions taking place in an isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor. The controls are the flow rates of three feed streams and an electrical energy input used to promote a photochemical reaction. Luus (1990) and Bojkov, Hansel, and Luus (1993) considered two sub-cases using three and four control variables respectively.

The problem is formulated as follows:Find u1(t), u2(t), u3(t) and u4(t) over t in [t0,tf] to maximize: Subject to:         where: with the initial conditions: And the following bounds on the control variables:    The final time is considered fixed as tf = 0.2.

% Copyright (c) 2007-2008 by Tomlab Optimization Inc.


## Problem setup

toms t


## Solve the problem, using a successively larger number collocation points

for n=[5 20 60]

    p = tomPhase('p', t, 0, 0.2, n);
setPhase(p);

tomStates x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 x7 x8
tomControls u1 u2 u3 u4

% Interpolate an initial guess for the n collocation points
if n == 5
x0 = {};
else
x0 = {icollocate({x1 == x1opt; x2 == x2opt
x3 == x3opt; x4 == x4opt; x5 == x5opt
x6 == x6opt; x7 == x7opt; x8 == x8opt})
collocate({u1 == u1opt; u2 == u2opt
u3 == u3opt; u4 == u4opt})};
end

% Box constraints
cbox = {icollocate({
0 <= x1; 0 <= x2; 0 <= x3
0 <= x4; 0 <= x5; 0 <= x6
0 <= x7; 0 <= x8})
collocate({
0 <= u1 <= 20; 0 <= u2 <= 6
0 <= u3 <= 4;  0 <= u4 <= 20})};

% Boundary constraints
cbnd = initial({x1 == 0.1883; x2 == 0.2507
x3 == 0.0467; x4 == 0.0899; x5 == 0.1804
x6 == 0.1394; x7 == 0.1064; x8 == 0});

% ODEs and path constraints
% 4.1*u2+(u1+u2.*u4) in another paper, -0.09 instead of -0.099
q = u1+u2+u4;
ceq = collocate({
dot(x1) == (u4-q.*x1-17.6*x1.*x2-23*x1.*x6.*u3)
dot(x2) == (u1-q.*x2-17.6*x1.*x2-146*x2.*x3)
dot(x3) == (u2-q.*x3-73*x2.*x3)
dot(x4) == (-q.*x4+35.2*x1.*x2-51.3*x4.*x5)
dot(x5) == (-q.*x5+219*x2.*x3-51.3*x4.*x5)
dot(x6) == (-q.*x6+102.6*x4.*x5-23*x1.*x6.*u3)
dot(x7) == (-q.*x7+46*x1.*x6.*u3)
dot(x8) == (5.8*(q.*x1-u4)-3.7*u1-4.1*u2+q.*...
(23*x4+11*x5+28*x6+35*x7)-5*u3.^2-0.099)});

% Objective
objective = -final(x8);


## Solve the problem

    options = struct;
options.name = 'Nonlinear CSTR';
solution = ezsolve(objective, {cbox, cbnd, ceq}, x0, options);

% Optimal x and u as starting point
x1opt = subs(x1, solution);
x2opt = subs(x2, solution);
x3opt = subs(x3, solution);
x4opt = subs(x4, solution);
x5opt = subs(x5, solution);
x6opt = subs(x6, solution);
x7opt = subs(x7, solution);
x8opt = subs(x8, solution);
u1opt = subs(u1, solution);
u2opt = subs(u2, solution);
u3opt = subs(u3, solution);
u4opt = subs(u4, solution);

Problem type appears to be: lpcon
===== * * * =================================================================== * * *
TOMLAB - Tomlab Optimization Inc. Development license  999001. Valid to 2010-02-05
=====================================================================================
Problem: ---  1: Nonlinear CSTR                 f_k     -21.841502289865446000
sum(|constr|)      0.000000000210556508
f(x_k) + sum(|constr|)    -21.841502289654890000
f(x_0)      0.000000000000000000

Solver: snopt.  EXIT=0.  INFORM=1.
SNOPT 7.2-5 NLP code
Optimality conditions satisfied

FuncEv    1 ConstrEv   53 ConJacEv   53 Iter   41 MinorIter  340
CPU time: 0.296875 sec. Elapsed time: 0.297000 sec.

Problem type appears to be: lpcon
===== * * * =================================================================== * * *
TOMLAB - Tomlab Optimization Inc. Development license  999001. Valid to 2010-02-05
=====================================================================================
Problem: ---  1: Nonlinear CSTR                 f_k     -21.896802275281694000
sum(|constr|)      0.000000001588543450
f(x_k) + sum(|constr|)    -21.896802273693151000
f(x_0)    -21.841502289865446000

Solver: snopt.  EXIT=0.  INFORM=1.
SNOPT 7.2-5 NLP code
Optimality conditions satisfied

FuncEv    1 ConstrEv   96 ConJacEv   96 Iter   91 MinorIter  374
CPU time: 1.296875 sec. Elapsed time: 1.297000 sec.

Problem type appears to be: lpcon
===== * * * =================================================================== * * *
TOMLAB - Tomlab Optimization Inc. Development license  999001. Valid to 2010-02-05
=====================================================================================
Problem: ---  1: Nonlinear CSTR                 f_k     -21.887245712615979000
sum(|constr|)      0.000000000754547213
f(x_k) + sum(|constr|)    -21.887245711861432000
f(x_0)    -21.896802275281715000

Solver: snopt.  EXIT=0.  INFORM=1.
SNOPT 7.2-5 NLP code
Optimality conditions satisfied

FuncEv    1 ConstrEv  283 ConJacEv  283 Iter  270 MinorIter 1018
CPU time: 39.375000 sec. Elapsed time: 39.844000 sec.

end

t  = subs(collocate(t),solution);
x1 = collocate(x1opt);
x2 = collocate(x2opt);
x3 = collocate(x3opt);
x4 = collocate(x4opt);
x5 = collocate(x5opt);
x6 = collocate(x6opt);
x7 = collocate(x7opt);
x8 = collocate(x8opt);
u1 = collocate(u1opt);
u2 = collocate(u2opt);
u3 = collocate(u3opt);
u4 = collocate(u4opt);


## Plot result

figure(1)
plot(t,x1,'*-',t,x2,'*-',t,x3,'*-',t,x4,'*-' ...
,t,x5,'*-',t,x6,'*-',t,x7,'*-',t,x8/10,'*-');
legend('x1','x2','x3','x4','x5','x6','x7','x8/10');
title('Nonlinear CSTR state variables');

figure(2)
plot(t,u1,'+-',t,u2,'+-',t,u3,'+-',t,u4,'+-');
legend('u1','u2','u3','u4');
title('Nonlinear CSTR control');  